", harvnb error: no target: CITEREFFong2001 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFChang2001 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFZhang2002 (, Kenneth M. Swope, The Military Collapse of China's Ming Dynasty, 1618–44 (Routledge: 2014), Lillian M. Li, Alison Dray-Novey and Haili Kong, Beijing: From Imperial Capital to Olympic City (MacMillan, 2008) p. 35, sfn error: multiple targets (6×): CITEREFWakeman1985 (, sfn error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFSwope2014 (, harvp error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFSwope2014 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFStruve1988 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFDennerline2002 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHo2011 (, sfnp error: no target: CITEREFFaure2007 (, harvtxt error: no target: CITEREFEbrey1993 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSpence2002 (. The fall of the Ming dynasty was largely caused by a combination of factors. The Ming emperor, fearful that Sun intended to make himself emperor, asked Li Dingguo to liberate him. Yet the phrase "defeat the Qing and restore the Ming" remained a byword for many. The generals Liu Denglou, commander of Yulin, Shaanxi, and Wang Yongqiang, top commander in Yan'an, Shaanxi, rebelled and switched back to the Ming. They were finally pacified by forces led by Ren Zhen.[171]. The emperors, in order to legitimize their rule, encouraged Qing officials and literary figures to organize and appropriate the legacy of Chinese literature, producing anthologies and critical works. [312] Young pretty Manchu girls were also seized by Hui Muslims of Xi'an during the massacre and brought up as Muslims. The rebellion was defeated mainly due to the refusal of most Han Chinese commanders to turn against the Qing dynasty. [16] Han Bannermen dominated governor-general posts in the time of the Shunzhi and Kangxi Emperors, as well as governor posts, largely excluding ordinary Han civilians. [75] A daughter 和硕柔嘉公主 of the Manchu Aisin Gioro Prince Yolo 岳樂 (Prince An) was wedded to Geng Juzhong 耿聚忠 who was another son of Geng Jingmao. [141] The Qing deliberately avoided placing Manchus or Mongols as provincial governors and governors-general, with not a single Manchu governor until 1658, and not a single governor-general until 1668. Issues and Trends in China's Demographic History. [246] But the siege of Nanjing was relieved and Zheng Chenggong repelled, forcing Zheng to take refuge in the southeastern coastal province of Fujian. When the other tribes attacked him to check his power in 1591, he succeeded in defeating them and seize much of their warhorses. After conquering "China proper", the Manchus identified their state as "China" (中國, Zhōngguó; "Middle Kingdom"), and referred to it as Dulimbai Gurun in Manchu (Dulimbai means "central" or "middle," gurun means "nation" or "state"). He formed autonomous Han Chinese military colonies governed by Han Chinese officials, where Manchus were forbidden to trespass. ", "The hair-cutting order, more than any other act, engendered the Kiangnan [Jiangnan] resistance of 1645. The Ming Emperor, however, fearful that accepting such political expediency would ruin his reputation tried to get Wei Zaode (魏藻德), the Chief Grand Secretary, to agree with the decision and shoulder the responsibility of the decision. Barbarian emperors. China's last imperial family, the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), was ethnically Manchu rather than Han Chinese, the vast majority of the nation's population. However, their disunity destroyed them. [113] After the fall of Songshan, amid the urging of his brother and sons (formerly also Ming generals) to join them in defecting to the Qing, the commander of Jinzhou, Zu Dashou, also defected on 8 April 1642, handing them the city. Sun Yat-Sen emerged as China's first "professional" revolutionary, having gained an international reputation by being abducted by Qing agents in the Chinese Embassy in London in 1896. In early 1646 Dorgon sent two expeditions to Sichuan to try to destroy Zhang Xianzhong's Great Xi dynasty regime: the first expedition did not reach Sichuan because it was caught up against remnants;[clarification needed] the second one, under the direction of Hooge (the son of Hong Taiji who had lost the succession struggle of 1643) reached Sichuan in October 1646. [198] In the queue order edict, Dorgon specifically emphasized the fact that Manchus and the Qing emperor himself all wore the queue and shaved their foreheads so that by following the queue order and shaving, Han Chinese would look like Manchus and the Qing Emperor and invoked the Confucian notion that the people were like the sons of the emperor who was like the father, so the father and sons could not look different and to decrease differences in physical appearance between Manchu and Han. [294][full citation needed], Immediately before the Ming dynasty was overthrown by Li Zicheng and the Qing entered Shanhai pass, disease, famine, starvation and bandits ravaged the population of China. Asia for Educators, Columbia University, 2009. Seeing the progress of the rebels, on 5 April the Ming Chongzhen Emperor requested the urgent help of any military commandant in the Empire. Shandong had been plagued by brigandage before the collapse of the Ming, and most Ming officials and their gentry-organised militia welcomed the new Qing regime, cooperating with them against the bandits who now grew into sizeable rebel armies complete with guns and cannons, and who leaders had declared themselves "kings". Upon the advice of an Erdeni, most likely a Chinese transfrontiersman, he proclaimed the Jin State, named after the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty that had ruled over north China several centuries earlier. Li Zicheng marched into the capital as Ming officials surrendered and defected. Major battles included the sacking of Fengyang by Li Zicheng and Zhang Xianzhong and the battle of Kaifeng which led to the deliberately engineered 1642 Yellow River flood by the Ming governor in an attempt to stop Li Zicheng. In some cases, such as with Bujantai of the Ula, chieftains would attempt to reassert their independence and war would break out, but the Jianzhou Jurchens would defeat and assimilate all the tribes eventually (Hada 1601, Hoifa 1607, Ula 1613, Yehe 1619). The Qing was forced to send in "heavy troops" (artillery), as well as extra reinforcements. Why Did China Lease Hong Kong to Britain? Asia Vocabulary Unit. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. 1roenmAsia. [234], In March 1648, a bandit chief, Yang Sihai, and a woman by the surname of Zhang, claimed to be the Crown Prince of the Tianqi Emperor, and his consort, respectively. [1] The Nanais at first fought against the Nurhaci and the Manchus, led by their own Nanai Hurka chief Sosoku before surrendering to Hongtaiji in 1631. A massive drought in 1636 hit Huangpi amidst a series of natural disasters. In the early 1640s, mass rebellions led by a variety of rebel leaders broke out in northwestern China's provinces of Shaanxi and spread throughout China in the 1640s. Qing rule gradually collapsed during the second half of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th, due to a complicated interplay between internal and external factors. [137], When Dorgon ordered Han civilians to vacate Beijing's inner city and move to the outskirts, he resettled the inner city with the Bannermen, including Han Chinese bannermen. [96] In 1644, the Ming was invaded by an army that had only a fraction of Manchus, the invading army was multi-ethnic, with Han Banners, Mongols Banners, and Manchu Banners. [245] In 1659, just as Shunzhi was preparing to hold a special examination to celebrate the glories of his reign and the success of the southwestern campaigns, Zheng sailed up the Yangtze River with a well-armed fleet, took several cities from Qing hands, and went so far as to threaten Nanjing. Strong rebel leaders began to have major impacts on the ability of the Qing to rule. Just as Dorgon and his advisors were pondering how to attack the Ming, the peasant rebellions ravaging northern China were approaching dangerously close to the Ming capital Beijing. In the end, the Manchus' Qing Dynasty would rule China right up to the end of the imperial era, in 1911. 108 terms. World History Chapter 12 section 2. Shortly afterwards, Nurhaci began to rebel against the Ming in Liaoning. Nanjing surrendered to the Qing without a violence as all officials surrendered and defected. In response, the Qing Empress Dowager Cixi clamped down hard on reformers. Meanwhile, rebel "bandits" continued advancing. The plains and villages were hit by bandits and rebels as starving refugees, orphans who lost parents to disease and fired postal couriers and soldiers whose salary was cut off turned into rebels in 1642 all over China. [295] in 1641 northern China was hit by disease and plague spreading to Huangpi and the plague infected corpses were the only food available to the survivors. Li Zicheng still did not intend to kill the Chongzhen Emperor and the Ming Crown Prince, intending to recognise them as nobles of the new Shun dynasty. The crippled Qing dynasty clung to power for another decade, behind the walls of the Forbidden City, but the Wuchang Uprising of 1911 put the final nail in the coffin when 18 provinces voted to secede from the Qing dynasty. This military caste gravitated toward the Jurchen tribal chieftains rather than the bureaucrats of the capital.[37]. [193], Manchu soldiers ransomed women captured from Yangzhou back to their original husbands and fathers in Nanjing after Nanjing peacefully surrendered, corralling the women into the city and whipping them hard with their hair containing a tag showing the price of the ransom, which was cheap at only 3 to 4 taels for the best and 10 taels at most for those wearing good clothing. [252] The Ming dynasty Princes who accompanied Koxinga to Taiwan were the Prince of Ningjing Zhu Shugui and Prince Zhu Hónghuán (朱弘桓), son of Zhu Yihai. Defected Ming general Gao Di led elite multi-ethnic Banner forces to crush the insurrection by November 18. Finally, they managed to kill claimants to the throne of the Southern Ming in Nanjing (1645) and Fuzhou (1646) and chased Zhu Youlang, the last Southern Ming emperor, out of Guangzhou (1647) and into the far southwestern reaches of China. China - China - The dynastic succession: The Ming dynasty, which encompassed the reigns of 16 emperors, proved to be one of the stablest and longest ruling periods of Chinese history. [85], There were too few ethnic Manchus to rule China, but they absorbed defeated Mongols, and, more importantly, added Han to the Eight Banners. [b] However, for Han officials and literati, the new hairstyle was "a humiliating act of degradation" (because it breached a common Confucian directive to preserve one's body intact), whereas for common folk cutting their hair "was tantamount to the loss of their manhood. [111] The fortress city of Songshan fell next after a major battle, due to the defection and betrayal of Ming commander Xia Chengde. [217][218], Meanwhile, the Southern Ming had not been eliminated. He was soon joined by another Muslim named Ding Guodong (丁國棟). Dorgon travelled to personally intervene against the rebels. That history stretched back at least as far as 221 BCE when Qin Shi Huangdi first united China into a single empire. [219] Crowned as the Longwu Emperor in the coastal city of Fuzhou on 18 August, he depended on the protection of talented seafarer Zheng Zhilong (also known as "Nicholas Iquan"). The dynasty’s founder Zhu Yuanzhang , founder of the new dynasty, came from a family originally from northwestern Jiangsu province who by Yuan times had deteriorated into itinerant tenant farmers in northern Anhui province. [220] The childless emperor adopted Zheng's eldest son and granted him the imperial surname. Their palace was used as Shi Lang's headquarters in 1683 but he memorialized the emperor to convert it into a Mazu temple as a propaganda measure in quieting remaining resistance on Taiwan. The army attacked and captured Fushun, located on the Hun River about 10 kilometers east of Shenyang. Soon after entering Beijing in June 1644, Dorgon despatched Wu Sangui and his troops to pursue Li Zicheng, the rebel leader who had driven the last Ming emperor to suicide, but had been defeated by the Qing in late May at the Battle of Shanhai Pass. B. the defeat of a weakened Chinese armies by the Manchu. [147] The Qing carried out a massive depopulation policy and clearances, forcing people to evacuate the coast in order to deprive Koxinga's Ming loyalists of resources: this led to a myth that it was because Manchus were "afraid of water". [226] Longwu and his empress were summarily executed in Tingzhou (western Fujian) on 6 October. [97] Han (Nikan) bannermen used banners of black color and Nurhaci was guarded by Han soldiers. ... Manchu. [26][27] The powerful Yehe Jurchens under Gintaisi united with the forces of the Ming dynasty to combat the rise of Nurhaci but Gintaisi was defeated and died in 1619. Manchu bannermen and their families were massacred in several banner garrisons across China during the revolution, one of the massacres taking place in Xi'an. Hereditary status groups ranged from the descendants of the imperial line down to the “mean people” at the bottom of the social ladder. In their later years, the Ming faced a number of famines and floods as well as economic chaos, and rebellions. C. the complete defeat of Japanese forces. [221] "Koxinga", as this son is known to Westerners, is a distortion of the title "Lord of the Imperial Surname" (Guoxingye 國姓爺). To show that the diverse subjects of the Qing were all part of one family, the Qing used the phrase "Zhongwai yijia" (中外一家, "central areas and outer areas as one realm") or "neiwei yijia" (內外一家, "interior and exterior of great-walls as one family"), to convey this idea of "unification" of the different peoples. The Qing defeated the armies of the Mongol Khan Ligdan Khan, who was allied to the Ming, bringing an end to his rule over the Northern Yuan. In May 1618, Nurhaci proclaimed his Seven Grievances against the Ming and departed his capital of Hetu Ala with 20,000 men. One of the tools they used to stay in power was a very strict restriction on trade. [232] The Yongli Emperor fled to Nanning and from there to Guizhou. They also patronized the development of Manchu literature and the translation of Chinese classics into Manchu. [129], After Wu formally surrendered to the Qing in the morning of 27 May, his elite troops charged the rebel army repeatedly, but were unable to break the enemy lines. [172] These rebels' willingness to collaborate with non-Muslim Chinese suggests that they were not only driven by religion, and were not aiming to create an Islamic state. The ship was going from Nagasaki to Batavia on a trade mission. [194], On 21 July 1645, after the Jiangnan region had been superficially pacified, Dorgon issued "the most untimely promulgation of his career":[195] he ordered all Chinese men to shave their forehead and to braid the rest of their hair into a queue just like the Manchus. Groups of stockades congregated around a "King", who would grant commissions of Colonel or Major to other stockade leaders. The balance of power had tipped decidedly away from the imperial court and toward the foreign powers. Other rebels, given the ready access to the Ming loyalists in neighbouring Sichuan, were able to continue resistance. [232] Finally on 24 November 1650, Qing forces led by Shang Kexi captured Guangzhou with the aid of Dutch gunners and massacred the city's population, killing as many as 70,000 people. [11][12][13] It was this multi-ethnic force in which Manchus were only a minority, which unified China for the Qing. [157][158][159] As well as the translations by Dahai, other Chinese literature, military theory and legal texts were translated into Manchu by Erdeni.[160]. [192] Nieuhof observed that the city of Nanjing was unharmed by Qing soldiers. When Hangzhou fell to the Qing on 6 July 1645,[191] the Prince of Tang Zhu Yujian, a ninth-generation descendant of Ming founder Zhu Yuanzhang, managed to escape by land to the southeastern province of Fujian. [208] Hundreds of thousands of people were killed before all of China was brought into compliance. [297] The Yangtze river delta's urban regions, the coastal southeast and the northwest were all hit by massive famine as the grain producing regions lost productivity. Taiwan was then under Qing rule. [231] This resurgence of loyalist hopes was short-lived. [40], In 1627, Hong Taiji dispatched Amin, Jirgalang, Ajige and Yoto to Joseon with 30,000 troops under the guidance of Gang Hong-rip and Li Yongfang. Zhang Xianzhong's former deputy, Sun Kewang, exterminated all his opponents in the Southern Ming court and kept the Ming emperor under de facto imprisonment, all the while continuing to refer to Zhang Xianzhong as a deceased Emperor. The rebels were crushed by Wu Sangui's forces. In fact, in Guangdong and Fujian, it was Han Bannermen who were the ones carrying out the fighting and killing for the Qing and this disproves the claim that "fear of water" on part of the Manchus had to do with the coastal evacuation to move inland and declare the sea ban. [68][25], This policy, which began before the invasion of 1644, was continued after it. By invading Joseon he also hoped to extract much-needed resources for his army and subjects, who had suffered in the war against Ming. The elites' self-proclaimed position as outsiders contributed to their eventual demise. The Amur peoples already wore the queue on the back of their heads but did not shave the front until the Qing subjected them and ordered them to shave. When Dorgon asked Wu to work for the Qing instead, Wu had little choice but to accept. What brought about the collapse of this once-mighty empire, ushering in the modern era in China? [298] Famine hit Hangzhou from 1640–1642, killing 50 percent of the population, forcing the impoverished to eat cocoons and silkworms, and forcing the rich to eat rice gruel. kcabrera18. [305][306][307][308], Accounts of atrocities during the transition from the Ming to Qing were used by revolutionaries in the anti-Qing Xinhai revolution to fuel massacres against Manchus. [216], In Guangzhou, massacres of Ming loyalists and civilians in 1650 were carried out by Qing forces under the command of northern Han Chinese Banner Generals Shang Kexi and Geng Jimao. [139], It was Han Chinese Bannermen who were responsible for the successful Qing takeover. Confucian teachings emphasized loyalty (忠 zhōng), but the question arose as to whether Confucians should be loyal to the fallen Ming or to the new power, the Qing. [241] Despite occasionally successful military campaigns in Huguang and Guangdong in the next two years, Li failed to retake important cities. Furthermore, a tribute of 100 horses, 100 tiger and leopard skins, 400 bolts of cotton, and 15,000 pieces of cloth was to be extracted and gifted to the Jin Khan. [253], Zheng Jing's navy executed 34 Dutch sailors and drowned eight Dutch sailors after looting, ambushing and sinking the Dutch fluyt ship Cuylenburg in 1672 on northeastern Taiwan. From this episode onward, the Ming-Qing transition ceased to be an inter-nation conflict between Chinese and Manchus but rather a civil war between Liaodong and Beijing. [144] It was these troops who provided day-to-day military governance in China,[145] and supplied the forces used in the front-line fighting. As you might expect, the collapse of China's Qing dynasty was a long and complex process. The new Khan Hong Taiji was eager for a quick victory to consolidate his position as khan. The Jurchen army advanced into Uiju where Mao Wenlong was stationed, and Mao quickly fled with his men into the Bohai Sea. Although Manchu Bannermen were often associated with the Jiangyin Massacre which targeted the Ming loyalists, the majority of those who had participated in Jiangyin Massacre were Chinese Bannermen. Feng Quan willingly adopted the Manchu queue hairstyle before it was enforced on the Han population and Feng learned the Manchu language. [165] In October of that year Dorgon sent several armies to root out Li Zicheng from his Shaanxi stronghold,[166] after repressing revolts against Qing rule in Hebei and Shandong in the Summer and Fall of 1644. [215], Ming defector Li Chengdong's Han Chinese soldiers who were mostly former revolted refugees, peasants and bandits from the north called the Han Chinese anti-queue resisters and Ming loyalists in Jiading "southern barbarians" (manzi) threatening them, telling them "southern barbarian, hand over your valuables", raping, torturing and massacring. Nurhaci's son Abatai's daughter was married to Li Yongfang. [34][35][36], In the late Ming dynasty, Ming army units had become dominated by officers who would spend long periods of ten or 12 years in command instead of the usual practice of constant rotation, and the Central Military Command had lost much of its control over regional armies. Japan stripped away Taiwan, took effective control of Korea (formerly a Chinese tributary) following the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895–96, and also imposed unequal trade demands in the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki. Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Asian history and culture. But unlike Korea, Japan has never made a film with using Manchu language. In April 1625, Nurhaci designated Shenyang the new capital city, which would hold that status until the Qing conquest of the Ming in 1644.[39]. By the mid-19th century, the Qing dynasty had been in power for over a century, and the elites and many of their subjects felt they had a heavenly mandate to remain in power. After the Jurchen unification, the Jurchen Khan Nurhaci began to set his eyes on China. Officials surrendered and defected was unharmed by Qing soldiers he would reign under the era name `` Hongguang '' artillery. Mao quickly fled with his men into the capital as Ming officials surrendered defected..., Several contingents of Qing forces to link up `` the hair-cutting order, more than other! To the Qing dynasty promoted itself as a conquering force, ruling China for 268 before. Coast were subjugated as tributary tribes from 1599 to 1641 he set out from Xi'an on that day... 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